William Shakespeare Lord Byron

Stock of Languague Funds - Introduction

Euskaraz Etxetik Mundura’


Historian viewpoint

Words and writing, do they not play the most important role among human activities? Social life is not viable without a sign system that allows people to communicate with each other, and among these signs, language was soon established as the most important.

Linguists have accumulated a lot of materials that offer tremendous interest to the historian. When looking for external causes of the evolution of languages, they have always taken into account the historical reality, social structures and development.

But the point of view of the historian is necessarily different. His effort is within a certain essential historical context, a country or group of countries in a precise time. The problem often appears in regard to languages belonging to distinct groups, such as the Romance and Germanic languages. The comparisons that the historian establishes are not the same as those that a linguist would establish.

Linguistic history provides historians a rare opportunity to contact documentary material drawn, not from certain more or less intelligent and representative individuals, but through the "mass speaker". At all times, linguistic innovations are, if not created, at least spread by numerous groups. Analysing the status of a language is to study the habits of hundreds of thousands, sometimes even millions, of people and also the stock of words at their disposal. This social character, which is one of the defining elements of language, is also what should fascinate the historian, who can hope to better understand human societies as a whole, their evolution and transformation of their mental structures.

At present, our knowledge of the linguistic situation of the current and past world has experienced spectacular progress both quantitatively and qualitatively. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were decisive in this knowledge. For the first time in the history of mankind, we have a very accurate picture of the languages spoken on the planet, their characteristics and their interrelationships and in some cases, their early history

In the nineteenth century, we began to describe the languages of the different nooks of the globe scientifically, languages of which we knew very little, just the name and some vocabulary made by a missionary or adventurer. The 20th century was a bore spectacular witness to the description of exotic languages. Many indigenous languages of America, Africa, Eurasia and Oceania began to be described using the concepts and methods of modern synchronic and diachronic linguistics, whose fundamental development occurs in the first half of the twentieth century. As a result of all these developments, the flow of our knowledge of the languages in the world, their relationships and their history is, nowadays, very large and constantly increasing.

Each language is unique and serves to organize the world of the person who uses it. Languages are communication tools and also communication barriers. Throughout time people have developed articulated sign systems with indescribable intuition, organized them according to certain rules and as a result they have become extremely effective for transmitting messages. This way, languages become tools for the needs of the communities that use them and for their environment, which greatly influences their development.

Living language

We call any language used by speakers a living language. This is an obvious observation for many languages but is complicated for others, because it is not always easy to locate speakers, or determine their native language. In some small communities of the world minority languages disappear, absorbed by the dominant culture, and in only one generation all traces of it can be lost.

The extreme numerical inequality of linguistic communities is worsened by the significant differences in receiving the official status of the states among which they are distributed. In general, the oldest indigenous languages over a territory have been described by the current majority as "indigenous” and have rarely profited from consideration from the "First Nations" or "languages”. This is how minority languages are subject to policies that push them to extinction. They are subjected to a regime of legal, social and cultural inferiority in relation to the dominant linguistic expression.


Globalization and linguistic diversity

The inevitable ongoing globalization has many cultural aspects and one of the most important of them is the widening extent of contacts among all the areas of humanity who speak many different languages. Although we currently have methods of consistent and systematic analysis, no one can determine the exact number of living languages currently spoken in humanity. But the truth is that many experts have reported in recent years that the XXI century will know a general and increasing disappearance of living languages, unparalleled in the history of mankind.

Everybody can be in favour or against the globalization process in its economic aspects; but many of us consider that when the process is applied to the field of languages and cultures, the consequences of this policy can be devastating. It is not just the dangerous trend of cultural uniformity on the planet. The danger is that knowledge, access to knowledge and the construction of new knowledge become commodities in centres of education. In this process the media also subscribe to the idea that a globalized economy, must correspond to only one globalized language - English in this case - and only one global culture, the culture of the United States, “the American one”.

Some people propose, in this sense, the exclusive teaching of English as a foreign language, because this language would be bound to become universal, by means of globalization. We must clarify that this linguistic globalization pursues an old human aspiration: the search for a universal language that allows to unite all mankind with a unique communication tool (a natural or artificial language). Let´s assume that this aspiration for a universal lingua franca is a legitimate aspiration.

However, this can not lead to the promotion of the minorization of other national or regional languages. It is always rewarding for anyone to get in touch with the cultural productions that circulate in many other languages, as legitimate as each other. The principles of economics can not therefore be applied to cultural products, for which diversity is wealth. The states that maintain linguistic diversity consider this matter as a real problem while it is precisely the solution.

One should work for linguistic and cultural diversity and for the respect and defense of freedom. André Gide said : c'est parce que tu diffères de moi que je t'aime (I love you because you differ from me).

To overcome the universal language chaos, a correct universal solution would be that every citizen, every existing person in the world only learned two languages, their own and the universal, this adopted jointly by all humanity. So linguistic nationalisms would be eliminated because they are as expensive economically as conflicting culturally, in that they often originate cultural and even human genocides.


Objectives of UPB

Given this bleak picture that hangs over the world of languages that will mean the disappearance of hundreds of languages this century and several thousands in the coming centuries, it is logical that the sensitivity of people who live the world’s languages intend to create awareness of rejecting such a cultural drama. We are witnessing, almost without blinking, a linguistic holocaust of universal dimensions. And, however, the governments whose mission should be to avert this incalculable loss, are consenting, if not encouraging, the immense cultural cataclysm that is sensed as very close.

When a language dies, a culture and a way of seeing and understanding life disappears with it. This plight has recently taken the Eyak, a language used by the natives of Alaska. Marie Smith Jones was the last native speaker of the language. For 15 years she was the only person able to speak Eyak, which she always considered a tragic responsibility. Let’s say that Eyak stopped being used 15 years before her death, because its last speaker had no one to practice with. Marie died on January 21, 2008 at the age of 89. Victims of genocide and acculturation for centuries, in 1900 only 38 individuals of the Eyak Nation were able to speak their language. Few more than 60,000 natives are still living in Alaska and speak about 20 languages. Can anyone think these twenty indigenous languages of Alaska will not suffer the same fate as the ill-fated Eyak? Alea Iacta Est. All will disappear.


Project aims

1.- Collecting, cataloguing and preserving all library collections produced in any world language about linguistic matters. Preference will be given to the purchase of grammars and dictionaries of endangered languages, minority languages, or Latin and classical Greek. Also, any form of audiovisual publication or sound record format will be part of it. Additionally, alphabets, maps, periodicals or copies of archival documents from other linguistic content libraries will also form part of the UPB funds.

2.- UPB, tal y como quedará establecido en sus Estatutos, tiene entre sus funciones desarrollar programas de cooperación con otras bibliotecas y entidades culturales y científicas de carácter lingüístico para facilitar el acceso a su patrimonio cultural.

3.- UPB will give exhibitions of compiled material in order to increase awareness within the civil and public authorities, particularly those with responsibility for the future of the world’s languages. The imminent risk of the disappearance of hundreds of languages in the near future is evident (every 2 weeks a language dies in the world), and thousands more in the longer term. Thus, UPB will encourage the development of programs and projects of cooperation within various associations and institutions.

4.- In the services chapter, UPB will be available to anyone wishing to use existing funds. It will ease consulting its catalogue and making queries through the media available at the time. It will also provide adequate space for on-site consultations. The method of consultation, loan of volumes and other documents will be regulated by rules established by each commission.

5.- UPB’s mission is to provide future generations with valuable material so that philologists, linguists and everyone who is interested in the world of linguistics can use it for their own purposes. This implies, within its financial possibilities, the implementation, coordination and promotion of working groups and research programs under its areas of its competence.

6.- UPB will be managed by the host group and governed by some statutes which will be drawn up at the time


The ultimate aim of UPB is to become a foundation or to join an existing one. This way, UPB would provide funds where philologists, linguists, scholars and even the curious could satisfy their interests within a century, two or three. However, if we do not retain these documents, it would be regrettable that there were no records of many languages that will inevitably die.

Currently, around 6,700 languages are spoken in the world. 700 languages in America, 200 in Africa, 80 in Asia and 40 in Europe will "soon" not exist (fortunately not in the case of Basque) to the benefit of 8 macro languages. Although I am the collector, I think this is a task that affects all humanity. The more documents that are perpetuated and gathered on languages, the more appreciative those who replace us will be in the future. The disappearance of a language is a universal cultural loss.

We are also planning to hold grammar exhibitions. It is interesting to compare the different alphabets and other aspects of language books and documents. It is lovely to be able to compare the different languages and different alphabets of the world. We think an exhibition of grammar texts and dictionaries could be very attractive. As well as the diversity of languages and alphabets, it could include a little blurb about the language and the people who speak (or spoke) it. For example, and by way of illustration, the overview of the Kurdish language could be: 


Language family: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish.
Language codes:
ISO 639-1 ku
ISO 639-2 kur
ISO 639-3 variously:
                kur - Kurdish (generic)
               ckb - Central Kurdish
               kmr - Northern Kurdish
               sdh - Southern Kurdish
               lki - Laki
Linguasphere: 68-AAA-a, 68-AAA-c

Beste izen batzuk (autoglotonimoa: kurdî, ?ö???):
bâhdinâni alt kurmanji [KUR].
bahdini alt behdini [BDF].
bandinani alt behdini [BDF].
behdini [BDF] hizk. Irak; baita Alemania ere.
kermanji alt kurmanji [KUR].
kirdasi alt kurmanji [KUR].
kirmâncha alt kurmanji [KUR].
kirmanji alt kurmanji [KUR].
korkora alt kurdi [KDB].
kurdish bandinani alt behdini [BDF].
kurdy alt kurdi [KDB].
kurmanji [KUR] hizk. Turkia (Asia); baita Alemania, AEB, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgika, Erresuma Batua, Frantzia, Georgia, Herbehereak, Iran, Irak, Jordania, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kirgizstan, Libano, Norvegia, Siria, Suedia, Suitza, Turkmenistan.
northern kurdish alt kurmanji [KUR].
sorani alt kurdi [KDB].
southern kurdish alt kurdi [KDB].
surani alt kurdi [KDB].
wâwâ alt kurdi [KDB].


kurmanji (northern kurdish, kermanji, kirmanji) [KUR] 58.000 hiztun, yezid barne (1993, Johnstone), % 84k ama hizkuntza dute (1979). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Kurmanji iparraldean dago, kurdi hegoaldean; hizkuntza ezberdinak dira; kurmanji eskolak, testuak; komunikazio handiko hizkuntza; idazkera zirilikoa; egunkariak, irrati emanaldiak. Ikus sarrera nagusia Turkian.


kurmanji (northern kurdish, kermanji, kirmanji, kirdasi, kirmâncha) [KUR] 20.000 hiztun (1989ko errolda). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Hego-mendebaldea. Ikus sarrera nagusia Turkian.


behdini (bahdini, bandinani, kurdish bandinani) [BDF] Halaber mintzatua Alemanian ere. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish.
kurdi (kurdy, southern kurdish, sorani, surani) [KDB] 2.785.500, populazioaren % 18 Irakeko kurdo guztiak barne, hauetan gehienek kurdi mintzatzen dute (1986); herrialde gustietako populazio osoa 6.036.000; herrialde guztietako hiztun kurdo guztiak: 11.000.000 (1999, WA). Sulamanyan eta bere inguruan; halaber mintzatua AEB eta Iranen ere. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Dialektoak: arbili, khushnaw, pizdar, mukri, garrusi (bijbri), ardaiâni (sanandaji), sulaymâni (suleimaniye), warmâwa, garmiyâni, kolyâ’i, zangana, kirmânshâhi. Iraken sorani da hedatuena; hizkuntza ofiziala; Ahl-ehaqq taldeak 3 distritutanKurdistango hego eta hego-ekialdean, nagusiki Kermanshah eta Kerkuk inguruan; 50.000 yezidi ipar Iraken Mosul ondoan eta Sinjar Muinoetan. NT 1994.

kurmanji (northern kurdish, kermanji, kirmanji) [KUR]. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Dialektoak: hakari, jezire
(botan). Kurdiaz (soauthern kurdish) hizkuntza ezberdina; komunikazio handiko hizkuntza; idazkera latindarra Turkian, arabiarra Siria, Iran eta Iraken, zirilikoa SESB ohian, armeniar idazkera ez da erabiltzen gaur. Ikus sarrera nagusia Turkian.


kurdi (kurdy, southern kurdish, sorani, korkora, wâwâ) [KDB] 3.250.000 hiztun. Ipar-mendebalde Iran, bereziki Kordestan, Kermanshahan, Mendebalde Azerbaijan probintziak; baita kopuru handi bat ere ipar-ekialdeko Iranen, Khorasan Probintziaren oso iparraldean. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Dialektoak: kermanshani, mukri, jafi. % 90 hiri eta herrietan bizi dira, % 10 nomadak dira; baliteke jafi hizkuntza bereizia izatea; 2 unibertsitatetan irakatsia; komunikazio handiko hizkuntza; arabiar idazkera Iran eta Iraken. NT 1994. Ikus sarrera nagusia Iraken.

kurmanji (northern kurdish, kermanji, kirmanji) [KUR] 200.000 hiztun (1983, ustez). Mendietako herriak Turkiak Mendebalde Azerbaijan Probintziarekin duen muga erregioan zehar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Kurmanji irakastea debekatua dago Irango eskoletan (Time 4/1/91); idazkera latindarra Turkian, arabiarra Siria eta Iraken; zirilikoa Errusian; armeniar idazkera ez da erabiltzen gaur. Ikus sarrera nagusia Turkian.


kurmanji (northern kurdish, kermanji, kirmanji) [KUR] 938.000 (1993), populazioaren % 6,3. Ipar Siria. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Kurdiaren (southern kurdish) ezberdina; elebitasuna arabieraz; gutxi batzuk hiritarrak eta nomadak; kurmanji debekatua eskoletan (Time 4/1/91); komunikazio handiko hizkuntza; idazkera arabiarra Siria, Iran, eta Iraken; gainerakoan latindarra edota zirilikoa. Ikus sarrera nagusia Turkian.


kurmanji (northern kurdish, kermanji, kirmanji, kirdasi, kirmâncha, bâhdinâni) [KUR] 3.950.000 1. hizkuntza dutenak (1980) 6.500.000 jendeko talde etnikoan Turkian (1993, Johnstone); herrialde guztietako populazio osoa 7.000.000-8.000.000koa. Gehienak Hakkari, Siirt, Mardin, Agri, Diyarbakir, Bitlis, Bingol, Van, Adiyaman eta Mus probintzietan daude; baita asko Urfa, Elazig, Kars, Tunceli, Malatya, Erzurum, Karaman Maras, Sivas, Ankara eta beste probintzietan ere; halaber mintzatzen da beste 25 herrialdetan, barne eginez Alemania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgika, Erresuma Batua, Frantzia, Georgia, Herbehereak, Iran, Irak, Jordania, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kirgizstan, Libano,
Norvegia, Siria, Suedia, Suitza, Turkmenistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Dialektoak: guwii, birjandi, alburz, sanjâri, judikâni. Mintzaira ezberdintasunak dialektoen artean, baina denek idazteko forma bera erabiltzen dute; kurdiaz (southern kurdish) ezberdina; asko ez dira oso elebidunak turkieraz; izen etnikoak dira halaber doudjik, kizibakh; komunikazio handiko hizkuntza; gramatika;idazkera latindarra Turkian; arabiar idazkera Siria, Irak eta Iranen; idazkera zirilikoa SESB ohian; gaur ez da erabiltzen armeniar idazkera.

Hizkuntza / language: kurduera / kurdish / kurdo / kurde.
Hiztunak / speakers (2001): 18.800.000 (Rafael del Moral).
Herrialdea / country: Turkey (6.830.000), North-East of Iran (5.680.000), North-Iraq (4.250.000), Syria (1.420.000) and some communities in Germany, Armenia and less in Azerbaiyan, Georgia, Lebanon and Russia



HISTORY. Indo-European language of the Iranian family, western branch, characteristic of Kurd ethnicity and Kurdistan. The language has spread across a vast territory outside political boundaries. The Kurds practice the Sunni religion and its territory is a mountainous region now occupied by Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria.

Since the 16th century Kurdistan has had little force in politics. The 4 administrations belonging to its speakers have stopped or frustrated demands seeking independence. Independence claims were harshly repressed during 1925 and 1930 in Turkey, in 1946 and 1992 in Iran and Iraq is in a constant state of war.

Since 1920 the Kurdish language has developed its own literature. In Iraq a Kurdish newspaper is currently published. Used in poetry from the 13th century.

LANGUAGE. Main features.

Phonetics. A) Kurdish is a very close relative of Persian, so close that comprehension between speakers of both languages is easy. B) It does distinguish between long and short vowels.

Morphosyntax. A) It does not distinguish gender, except in some cases by lexical means. B) The morpheme that generally indicates the plural is -an. C) The verb forms are constructed with 2 roots, the root of the present and another of the past. Transitive verbs are conjugated in the past in accordance with the direct object. D) Turkish and Arabic loans are numerous, although there is a great tendency to adapt foreign words to his own form. E) The political and social disintegration among its users prevented a unified way. The language is fragmented into two dialects, Kurmandí, more archaic, retaining traces of decline and gender distinction, and Sorani, more grounded and has a semi-official status in Iraqi Kurdistan where it is used in elementary school. F) The first 10 numbers in Kurdish are: yet (1), du (2), sê (3), çar (4), pênc (5), çeş (6) heft (7), heşt (8), neh (9), deh (10).

Script. The Kurmandí variety is written with the Latin alphabet and the Sorani uses some Persian Arabic signs. It has even come to be written in Cyrillic characters. Overall, Syria, Iran and Iraq Arabic alphabet is used and Cyrillic or Latin in the rest.


KURDIYA HÊSA, Amadekar, Sadik Varli, îkram Î?ler, Ramazan Turan, Taha Ceyhan eta Cihan Çelik, 26x18, 123 or., Santiago de Compostela, 2005.
GRAMMAIRE KURDE, Par l’abbé Paul Beidar, prêtre chaldéen, fotokopia, originala Paris 1926, 76 or., 2008.


HEGATS-46, EIEren literatur aldizkaria, Kurdistan: herria, kultura, literatura, Edukia: I. Euskal Herria, Kurdistan, Euskal Herria. II. Iparretik Hegora, Kurdistan. III. Literatura kurdua: hurbilpen bat. Elkarrizketa: Helim Yusiv eta Berivan Dosky, 19x13, 118 or., Donostia, 2010.

Kurdish alphabet:

Three systems currently exist. The form used in Turkey was derived from the Latin alphabet by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan in 1932, and thus is also called the Bedirxan script or more properly Hawar. It is used by Kurds in Turkey, Syria and Armenia. The Sorani alphabet (modified Persian alphabet) is used by Kurds in Iraq and Iran, and there is also a recent alphabet called Yekgirtú which attempts to unify these. The Yekgirtú (Yekgirtí, yekgirig) alphabet is a recent devised writing system by Kurdish Academy of Language. It has many advantages compared to the Kurmanji and Sorani alphabets. It is adapted for all Kurdish dialects and not exclusive to just one, and is therefore called Yekgirtú, which means "unified." It is also better adapted to the vowel-rich Kurdish language than is the Arabic script. The Kurdish Unified Alphabet contains 34 characters including 4 digraph cases (jh, ll, rr, sh) and 4 characters with diacritics (é, í, ú, ù). It represents 9 vowels (a, e, é, i, í, o, u, ú, ù) and 25 consonants:A, B, C, D, E, É, F, G, H, I, Í, J, Jh, K, L, ll, M, N, O, P, Q, R, rr, S, Sh, T, U, Ú, Ù, V, W, X, Y, Z.

Recently it has been used more than the Arabic script on Kurdish TV. In 1928 Kurdish language in all URSS, including Armenian SSR, was switched to Latin alphabet, containing some additional Cyrillic characters: a, b, c, ç, d, e, ә, f, g, г, h, i, ь, j, k, ʀ, l, m, ɴ, o, ө, w, p, n, q, ч, s, ш, ц, t, u, y, v, x, z, ƶ. In 1929 it was reformed and was replaced by:

A a  B b  C c  Є є Ç ç  D d  E e  Ә ә
Ә́ ә́ F f   G g Ƣ ƣ H h  Ħ ħ I i  J j
K k K̡ k̡ L l M m N n O o  Ö ö  P p
Ṕ ṕ Q q R r    S s Ş ş T t  T̡ t̡ U u
Û û  V v  W w  X x Y y Z z  Ƶ ƶ Ь ь


Latin Kurmanjî Yekgirtú Cyrillic Kurmanjí Sorani (initial) (medial) (final) IPA
A,a  A,a  A,a ا ا ئ ـا  [aː]





بـ ـ ـب















 [ t͡ʃ]



د —











E,e(Э э)


ێـ ئ

ێـ ـ







فـ ـ







گـ ـ





















عـ ـ

ع ـ

I,i  I,i  Ь,ь  —        [ ɯ ]
Î,î  Í,í  И,и  ی  ئی  يـ ـ  ی  [iː]
J,j  Jh,jh   Ж,ж  ژ  —    ـژ  [ ʒ ]
K,k  K,k  K,k  ک  ک  کـ ـ  ک  [k ]
L,l  L,l   Л,л  ل  ل  لـ ـ  ـل  [l ]
 —  ll  Л’,л’  ڵ ڶ  ـ ,ڵ ــ ڶ  ـ ,ـ ڶـ ـ  ـڵ, ـڶ  [ـڶ ˤ ]
M,m  M,m  M,m  م  م  مـ  م  [m ]
N,n  N,n  Н,н ن  ن  نـ ـ  ـن  [n ]
O,o  O,o  O,o  ۆ  ۆ ئ  -  ـۆ  [o ]
P,p  P,p  П,п  پ  ـ پ پـ ـ  ـپ  [p ]
Q,q  Q,q  Q,q  ق  ق  قـ ـ  ـق  [q ]
R,r  R,r  P,p  ر  —    ـر  [r ]
 rr  Р’,р’  ڕ ,ڒ ڔ  —    ـڔ,ـڒ,ـڔ  [r]
S,s  S,s  C,c  س  س  سـ ـ  ـس  [s ]
Ş,ş  Sh,sh  Ш,ш ش   ش  شـ ـ  ش  [ ʃ ]
T,t  T,t  T,т  ت ت  تـ ـ ت   [t ]
U,u  U,u  Ö,ö  و  —    ـو  [œ ]
Û,û  Ú,ú  У,у  ۇ , و و  —   ـۇ,و و    [u ː ]
 Ù,ù  —  ۈ  —    ـۈ  [ʉ ː ]
V,v  V,v  B,в ۋ , ڤ   ـ ڤ  ڤـ ـ  ۋ,ـڤ  [v ]
W,w  W,w  W,w  و  —    ـو  [w ]
X,x  X,x  X,x  خ خ  ـخـ خ  [x ]
Ẍ , ẍ  X',x'  Ѓ,ѓ  غ غ  غـ ـ  غ ـ [ ʁ ]
Y,y  Y,y  Й,й  ی  ـ ی  —    [j]
Z,z  Z,z  З,з  ز  —    ـز  [z ]

According to the Kurdish Academy of Language, Kurdish has the following consonants and vowels


  Bilabial Labiodental Apical Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m   n     ŋ      
Plosive p b   t d     k ɡ q   ʔ
Affricate       tʃ d͡ʒ          
Fricative   f v s z ʃ ʒ ç x ɣ   ħ ʕ h
Lateral     l ɫ            
Flap     ɾ            
Trill     r            
Approximant   ʋ     j        


  Front  Central  Back
Close ʉ  u
Near-close   ɪ̈  
Mid     o
Open-mid ɛ    
Near-open æ    

Historical phonology 


OP MP Persian Kurdish Parthian Avestan Proto-Iranian
θ h h s s s *?
d  d d z  z z *?
j z z ž ž j *j, *V?
ç z z ž ž ç
-š- -š- -š- -h-/nil -š- -š- *-š-
x- x- x- k- x- x- *x-
w- w- b- b- w- w- *w-
y- j- j- j-- y- y- *y-
b, d, g w, y, (') w, y, (/nil) w, y, (nil) β, ð, ? b, d, g *b, *d, *g
p, t, k b, d, g, b, d, g w, h, y, (/nil) β, ð, ? p, t, k *p, *t, *k
Vm -m -m -v (-w) -m -m *m
fr- fr- (hr-) for- etc. fr- fr- fr- *fr-
ç s s s? hr θr ('s'?) *θr
θw   h h? or w/v?  θw  *θw  
 duv-  d-  d-    d-  b-   duu-    *dw 
s/z  s/z  s/z    sp?/zw?   sp/zw    sp/zw   *św/ *źw 
 (h)uv-   xw-  x(w)-   x(w)-   wx-  xv-, huu  *hw  
rd  l, r   l  unclear (maybe: l, ł, r)   rð & rz  rd & rz    *rd & *rź 
 nd  nd/nn  nd    n   nd   nd  *nd  
 šn  šn  šn    žn  zn    sn   *śn 
 Všm, Vhm  -šm, - hm  -šm, -xm  -v (-w) -šm, -hm  -šm, -hm  *šm?   
ft  ft  ft  (w)t, (ft?)  ft  ft  *ft      
xt   xt  xt    t    xt  xt  *xt  
pasā  pas   pas   pāš  paš    pas-ča   *pas-ča  
 šiyav-   šaw-  šaw-   č-    šaw-  šiiu-  *čyau  
a-  a-    a-   ha-   a-  a-   *a  
 d-  -d-   -d-  -l-  -d-  -d-  -*d     



Kurdish sample text

Hemû mirov azad û di weqar û mafan de wekhev tên dinyayê. Ew xwedî hiş û şuûr in û divê li hember hev bi zihniyeteke bratiyê bilivin.


Gizon-emakume guztiak aske jaiotzen dira, duintasun eta eskubide Todos los seres humanos nacen libres e iguales en dignidad y derechos. berberak dituztela; eta ezaguera eta kontzientzia dutenez gero, elkarren artean senide legez jokatu behar dute. (Giza Eskubideen Aldarrikapen Unibertsaleko 1. artikulua) All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)


Review of sumo language:


Language family: Misumalpan, Sumo.

Language codes:
ISO 639-1 none
ISO 639-2 cai
ISO 639-3 sum

Beste izen batzuk (autoglotonimoa: sumu):

soumo alt sumo tawahka [SUM].
sumo alt sumotawahka [SUM].
sumo tawahka [SUM] hizk. Nikaragaua; baita Honduras ere.
sumoo alt sumo tawahka [SUM].
sumu alt sumo tawahka [SUM].
ulwa alt sumo tawahka [SUM].
woolwa alt sumo tawahka [SUM].


sumo tawahka (sumo, sumu, soumo, sumoo) [SUM] 700 hiztun (1997, SIL); 800- 1.000 talde etnikoan (1993, Ramon D. Rivas). Patuca Ibaiaren ertzbazterrak, Gracias a Dios eta Olancoren parteak Departamenduak. Misumalpan. Dialektoak: tawahka, ulwa. Nikaraguakoaren hizkuntza berdina, baina dialekto ezberdina; kontatzen da tawahkak antz handiagoa duela nicaraguan panamahkarekin nicaraguan tawahkarekin baino; elebitasuna miskitoeraz; sumoera apenas erabiltzen den Hosdurasen, miskitoaz mintzo dira eta biziki azkar ari dira miskitoen komunitatean integratzen; ‘sumo’ izena ez dute erabili nahi hiztunek; SOV. Ikus sarrera nagusia Nikaraguan.


sumo tawahka (sumu, soumo, sumoo, woolwa, sumo, ulwa) [SUM] 6.700 hiztun (1982, Mesoamerica). Bi herrialdeetako populazio osoa 7.400. Huaspuc (Waspuk) Ibaia eta tributarioak. Hondurasen ere mintzatzen da. Misumalpan. Dialektoak: panamahka, twahka, nicaraguan tawahka, honduran tawahka (southern sumo). Honduraskoaren hizkuntza berdina, baina dialekto ezberdina; aipatutako lehen hiru dialektoak northern sumoan batera biltzen dira; ulwa, bawika eta kukra bere aldaerak dira. SOV.

Hizkuntza / language: sumoera / sumo tawahka / sumu / sumo.
Hiztunak / speakers(2001): 9.000.
Herrialdea / country: Nicaragua, Honduras.

HISTORY. Sumo is the mother tongue of about 9,000 inhabitants on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and Honduras. Today, this is the only existing grammar.

Sumo has two dialects, Panamahka and Twahka whose differences are purely lexical, not structural.

The Sumos lived with Miskitos, but after the arrival of English settlers and their political and military alliance with the Miskitos, Sumos began to lose their territory. The Miskitos, armed with British muskets, took and sold many Sumus as slaves to the British, who sent them to the Caribbean islands. Sumos became isolated in more inaccessible areas, but in the 20th century American and Canadian companies settled in these areas and polluted their rivers, plundered their forests and razed their banana plantations. However, in 1988, the Sumo communities received their communal land titles and hope to achieve some degree of food self-sufficiency.

The Moravian Church evangelized the Sumos in Miskito and made them literate in Miskito and Spanish, so they cannot read their native language.

There is a law (Law on Official Use of Languages of the Communities of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua) that establishes the official status of Spanish and indigenous languages (Miskito, Creole, Sumu, Garifuna, branch) that regulates their use in education, but does not provide communities with resources to ensure such use. In Honduras the official language is Spanish.

LANGUAGE. Key Features. Phonetics. Sumo has 6 vowels. It is not normal that the words have consonant groups at the beginning or end of syllable. The few that exist seem to be Miskito, English or Spanish loans. Morphology. A) In Sumo the plural forms with balna: û balna =houses, wakisa balna = bananas. Irregular plurals: al (man)  ahal (men); yal (woman)  yayal (women); wahma (boy)  wawahma (boys); sirau (girl)  sirarau (girls). B) Like in Basque, the personal pronouns do not distinguish gender: witing = he, she; witingna = they, them. However, the first person plural distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms. C) In verbs, - ta, -wi -di are suffixes of present. In the past, the mark is -na. It has imperative forms for all persons. It has stative verbs that are conjugated as verbs rather than adjectives. D) The adjectives have different forms for singular and plural, but not for masculine and feminine. E) The Sumo language is postpositional, not prepositional. F) The sumo number system is vigesimal fundamentally. There are no numbers in Sumo higher than one hundred, for higher, they use numbers in English or Spanish. Here are the first 10 numbers in sumo: as (1), bu (2), bâs (3), arungka (4), singka (5), tiaskau as (6), tiaskau bu (7), tiaskau bâs (8), tiaskau arungka (9), salap (10).

Script. Latin alphabet


GRAMÁTICA DE LA LENGUA SUMU, Susan Norword, Cidca-Uca, Colección Lenguas Indígenas, 22x15, 184 or., Managua, 1997.

With a similar brief review grammar on each exposure, the desire for knowledge of the world's linguistic reality, and especially that of the vernacular, a genuine interest charge.

Post. At this point it should be noted that the approximately 2,000 books and documents library card are stored in cardboards in the absence of a suitable place to display it properly.

Virginia Woolf Agatha Christie