Zuluera

ZULU, ZULÚ, ZOULOU.

 

Language family: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40) .

Language codes:

        ISO  639-1   zu   

        ISO  639-2   zul  

        ISO  639-3   zul

Guthrie code: S. 42.

Glottolog: zulu1248.

Linguasphere: 99-AUT-fg incl

                           varietes 99-AUT-fga to 99-AUT.fge.

 

Beste izen batzuk (autoglotonimoa: isiZulu):

isizulu alt zulu [ZUU].

kingoni alt zulu [ZUU].

ngoni alt zulu [ZUU].

zulu [ZUU] hizk. Hegoafrika; baita Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambike, Suitza ere.

 zunda alt zulu [ZUU].

 

HEGOAFRIKA

 

zulu (isizulu, zunda) [ZUU] 8.778.000 hiztun (1995), populazioaren % 22,4 (1995,The Economist). Herrialde guztietako populazioa 9.142.000. Zululandia eta Natal iparraldea. Halaber mintzatzen da Bostwana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambike eta Suitzan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40). Egunkariak, irrati emanaldiak.

 

MALAWI

 

zulu (ngoni, kingoni, isizulu, zunda) [ZUU] 37.480 hiztun (1996ko errolda). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40). Ngoniera zulueraren edo swazieraren dialektoa da Malawin mintzaua. ‘Ngoni’ halaber da txitxeuaren beste izen bat eta agian baita matengoerarena ere. Ikus sarrera nagusia Hegoafrikan.

 

MOZAMBIKE

 

zulu (isizulu, zunda) [ZUU] 1.798 hiztun (1980ko errolda). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40). Ikus sarrera nagusia Hegoafrikan.

 

Hizkuntza / lengua: zuluera / zulu / zulú / zoulou.

Hiztunak / hablantes: 8.787.278 (Ethnologue).

Herrialdea / país: Hegoafrika, Malawi, Mozambike.

 

 

HISTORIA. Bantuar familiako hizkuntza nigero-kongoarra, suaziera, sindebeleera eta joserarekin batera enguniera hizkuntzen, hots, portugesek kafre hizkuntzak deituen adarra osatzen duena. ‘Kafre’ hitzak ‘paganoa’ esan nahi du. Badirudi aurri arkeologiko batzuek demostratzen dutela IX. m.an bazela jada zuluera, edota bere aurrekoa.

Xakatarren inperio zulua baino lehen beste askoren artean bat gehiago zen hizkuntza. Egoera haren garapena eta kolonien garaiko matxinaden ondoren mamitu zen zuluen nortasuna eta gizabanakoen garapena. Gero etorri ziren 1820 eta 1830eko migrazioak Hegoafrikaren ekialdera.Oso kementsu erabiltzen da komunikabideetan. 

Zuluerak, joserak eta sauzierak osatzen duten hizkuntza bantuen taldearen eta beste hizkuntza bantuen arteko ezberdintasuna hizkuntza koisanen klik ahoskera haiek bereganatzean datza, beren 3 kontsonante afektatzen dituena.

 HIZKUNTZA. Ezaugarri nagusiak.

Fonetika. A) [r] fonemarik ez du. B) 3 tonu bereizten ditu: garaia, baxua eta beheranzkoa.

Morfosintaxia. A) Izenak 8 klasetan sailkatzen ditu. B) Adjektiboek izen-klasearen aurrizkiekin komunztatu behar dute. C) Aditzaren egiturak bi izenordain eduki behar ditu aurrizkien bidez erantsita. D) Denboraren morfemak aditzaren aurrean doaz, aurrizki baten bidez edo beste zeinahi hitzen bidez. E) Ingelesaren maileguak berehalaxe egokitzen ditu fonetikan eta sailkapen sisteman. F) Hona hemen zulueraz lehen 10 zenbakiak: -nye (1), -bili (2), -tatu (3), -ne (4), -hlanu (5), isitupa (6), isikhombisa (7), isishiyagalombili (8), isihiyagalolunye (9), ishumi (10).

Idazkera. Latindar alfabetoa.

 

 

HISTORIA. Lengua nígero-congolesa de la familia bantú propia de la etnia zulú que forma junto con el suací, el sindebele y el josa la rama de las lenguas enguní, llamadas lenguas cafre por los portugueses. Cafre significa en árabe ‘pagano’. Restos arqueológicos parecen dejar patente que ya existía el zulú, o mejor dicho su lengua antecesora, en el s IX.

Antes del imperio zulú de los Shaka la lengua era una más de las muchas utilizadas. Tras el desarrollo de aquel estado y los levantamientos de la época colonial se gesta la identidad del zulú y su desarrollo individualizado. Luego vendrían las rebeliones de los años 1820 y 1830 así como migraciones hacia el este de Sudáfrica. Es utilizada activamente en los medios de comunicación.

El grupo de languas bantúes formado por el zulú, el josa y el saucí se diferencia de las otras lenguas bantúes por haber adoptado la pronunciación clic propia de las lenguas koisanas, que afecta a 3 de sus consonantes.

 

 LENGUA. Principales características.

Fonética. A) Ausencia de [r]. B) Distingue 3 tonos: alto, bajo y descendente.

Morfosintaxis. A) Clasifica a los nombres en 8 clases nominales. B) Los adjetivos deben concordar con los prefijos de clase de nombre. C) La estructura del verbo ha de contar con 2 pronombres unidos a él mediante prefijos. D) Los morfemas de tiempo anteceden al verbo, ya sea mediante un sufijo u otras palabras. E) Préstamos del inglés que adapta inmediatamente a su fonética y a su sistema de clasificación. F) Los 10 primeros números en zulú son: -nye (1), -bili (2), -tatu (3), -ne (4), -hlanu (5), isitupa (6), isikhombisa (7), isishiyagalombili (8), isihiyagalolunye (9), ishumi (10).

Escritura. Alfabeto latino.

 

 

GRAMATIKAK, METODOAK, ESKULIBURUAK

 

HIZTEGIAK, LEXIKOAK

 

ENGLSH-ZULU, An abridged word-book,  Incwady Yabantu Yamazwi, Esingisi Echasiselwe Ngesizulu, by A. T. Bryant, D.Lit,  Mariannhill Mission Press, 15th Impression, Don Libro, ( ?), 1990.

ENGLISH-ZULU / ZULU-ENGLISH, Scholar’s zulu dictionary, New orthography, Compiled by G. R. Dent eta C. L. S. Nyembezi, 18x12, 519 or., Cape Town, 1969.

 

FONOLOGIA

 

Bokalak / Vowels

 

 

Front

Central

Back

Close

i

 

u

Mid

e

 

o

Open

 

a

 

/e/ and /o/ are pronounced [e] and [o] respectively when the following syllable contains an "i" or a "u", or when the vowel is word-final.

 

IPA

Example (IPA)

Example (Written)

Meaning

/i/

[síːza̤]

-siza

"help"

/u/

[umúːzi̤]

umuzi

"homestead"

/e/

[e]

[umɡiɓéːli]

umgibeli

"passenger"

[ɛ]

[pʰɛ́ːɠa]

-pheka

"cook"

/o/

[o]

[umaɠóːti]

umakoti

"bride"

[ɔ]

[ɔɡɔ̤̌ːɡo̤]

ogogo

"grandmothers"

/a/

[dǐ̤ːda̤]

-dida

"puzzle"

 

Kontsonanteak / Consonants

 

 

 

Labial

Dental/Alveolar

Postalveolar

Velar

Glottal

central

lateral

Click

plain

 

c [ǀ]

x [ǁ]

q [ǃ]

 

 

aspirated

 

ch [ǀʰ]

xh [ǁʰ]

qh [ǃʰ]

 

 

depressor

 

gc [ᶢǀʱ]

gx [ᶢǁʱ]

gq [ᶢǃʱ]

 

 

nasal

 

nc [ᵑǀ]

nx [ᵑǁ]

nq [ᵑǃ]

 

 

depressor nasal

 

ngc [ᵑǀʱ]

ngx [ᵑǁʱ]

ngq [ᵑǃʱ]

 

 

Nasal

plain

m [m]

n [n]

ny [ɲ]

ng [ŋ]

 

depressor

[m̤]

[n̤]

[ɲ̈]

[ŋ̈]

 

Stop

plain

p [pʼ]

t [tʼ]

 

k [kʼ][* 1]

 

aspirated

ph [pʰ]

th [tʰ]

 

kh [kʰ]

 

depressor

bh [b̤]

d [d̤]

 

g [ɡ̈]

 

implosive

b [ɓ]

 

 

k [ɠ][* 2]

 

Affricate

plain

 

 

 

tsh [tʃʼ]

kl [kxʼ]

 

depressor

 

 

 

j [dʒ̈]

 

 

Fricative

plain

f [f]

s [s]

hl [ɬ]

sh [ʃ]

 

h [h]

depressor

v [v̤]

z [z̤]

dl [ɮ̈]

 

 

hh [ɦ̤]

Approximant

plain

 

 

l [l]

y [j]

w [w]

 

depressor

 

 

 

[ȷ̈]

[w̤]

 

 

Pronounced

Example (IPA)

Example (Written)

Meaning

Notes

[ǀ]

[iːˈǀiːǀi]

icici

"earring"

 

[ǀʰ]

[úɠuˈǀʰáːza̤]

ukuchaza

"to fascinate/explain"

 

[ᶢǀʱ]

[ísiᶢǀʱǐ̤ːno]

isigcino

"end"

 

[ᵑǀ]

[iᵑǀwáːᵑǀwa]

incwancwa

"sour corn meal"

 

[ᵑǀʱ]

[iᵑǀʱǒ̤ːsi]

ingcosi

"a bit"

 

[ǃ]

[iːǃáːǃa]

iqaqa

"polecat"

 

[ǃʰ]

[iːǃʰúːde̤]

iqhude

"rooster"

 

[ᶢǃʱ]

[umᶢǃʱi̤ɓɛ́ːlo]

uMgqibelo

"Saturday"

 

[ᵑǃ]

[iᵑǃɔ́ːla]

inqola

"cart"

 

[ᵑǃʱ]

[iᵑǃʱɔ̤̌ːndo̤]

ingqondo

"brain"

 

[ǁ]

[iːǁɔ́ːǁo]

ixoxo

"frog"

 

[ǁʰ]

[úɠuǁʰáːsa]

ukuxhasa

"to support"

 

[ᶢǁʱ]

[úɠuᶢǁʱɔ̤̌ːɓa]

ukugxoba

"to stamp"

 

[ᵑǁ]

[iᵑǁɛ́ːɓa]

inxeba

"wound"

 

[ᵑǁʱ]

[iᵑǁʱɛ̤̌ːɲe]

ingxenye

"part"

 

 

Beste kontsonante batzuk / Other consonants

 

IPA

Example (IPA)

Example (Written)

Meaning

Notes

[m]

[umáːma]

umama

"my/our mother"

Pronounced as in English.

[n]

[uníːna]

unina

"his/her/their mother"

Pronounced as in nine in English.

[ɲ]

[iɲóːni]

inyoni

"bird"

Alveolo-palatal, not quite as in French vignette.

[ŋ]

[iŋɡǎːne]

ingane

"child"

Pronounced as in sing.

[pʼ]

[iːpʼíːpʼi]

ipipi

"pipe for smoking"

Pronounced as in speech.

[pʰ]

[pʰɛ́ːɠa]

-pheka

"cook"

Pronounced as in pin.

[tʼ]

[iːtíːje]

itiye

"tea"

Pronounced as in "step".

[tʰ]

[tʰáːtʰa]

-thatha

"take"

Pronounced somewhat as in English "top".

[kʼ]

[kʼumnáːndi̤]

kumnandi

"it is delicious"

Pronounced as in English "skill".

[kʰ]

[iːˈkʰáːnda̤]

ikhanda

"head"

Pronounced somewhat like c in "cat".

[b]

[bǎ̤ːla]

-bhala

"write"

Pronounced more or less as in English bed, but fully voiced.

[d]

[iːdǎ̤ːda̤]

idada

"duck"

Pronounced more or less as in English duck, but fully voiced.

[ɡ]

[ɔɡɔ̤̌ːɡo̤]

ugogo

"grandmother"

Pronounced somewhat like in go, but fully voiced.

[ɓ]

[uɓáːɓa]

ubaba

"my/our father"

Pronounced with implosion.

[ɠ]

[uɠǔːza̤]

ukuza

"to come"

Pronounced with implosion.

[f]

[íːfu]

ifu

"cloud"

Pronounced more or less as in English fun.

[v]

[vǎ̤ːla]

-vala

"close"

Pronounced as in English very.

[s]

[iːsíːsu]

isisu

"stomach"

Pronounced as in English say.

[z]

[umzṳ̌ːzṳ]

umzuzu

"moment"

As in English "zoo"

[ʃ]

[iːʃúːmi]

ishumi

"ten"

Pronounced as in English shall.

[h]

[háːmba̤]

-hamba

"go"

Pronounced as in English hand.

[ɦ]

[iːɦǎ̤ːʃi]

ihhashi

"horse"

Pronounced as in English ahead.

[l]

[láːla]

-lala

"sleep"

Pronounced as in English leaf.

[ɬ]

[ɬáːla]

-hlala

"sit"

Pronounced as in Welsh Llanelli.

[ɮ]

[ɮǎ̤]

idla

"eat"

Voiced form of [ɬ].

[tʃʼ]

[utʃʼáːni]

utshani

"grass"

Pronounced as the English chin.

[dʒ]

[úːdʒṳ]

uju

"honey"

Pronounced as the English jump.

[kx ~ kʟ̝̊ ~ kʟ]

[umkxɔmɛ́ːlo]

umklomelo

"prize"

Pronunciation varies by speaker.

[j]

[ujíːse]

uyise

"his/her/their father"

Pronounced as in yes in English.

[w]

[wɛ́ːla]

wela

"cross"

Pronounced as in wall in English.

 

Testu-lagina / Sample text

 

Hegoafrikaren Konstituzioko sarreratik jasoa

From the preamble to the South African Constitution

 

Thina, bantu baseNingizimu Afrika, Siyakukhumbula ukucekelwa phansi kwamalungelo okwenzeka eminyakeni eyadlula; Sibungaza labo abahluphekela ubulungiswa nenkululeko kulo mhlaba wethu; Sihlonipha labo abasebenzela ukwakha nokuthuthukisa izwe lethu; futhi Sikholelwa ekutheni iNingizimu Afrika ingeyabo bonke abahlala kuyo, sibumbene nakuba singafani.

 

Itzulpena / Translation:

 

 

Guk, Hegoafrikako herria, aitortzen ditugu iraganeko injustiziak; Ohorea justizia eta askatasunaren alde gure lurraldean sufritu zutenei; Begirunea gure herria eraiki eta garatu zutenei; eta uste dugu Hegoafrika aniztasunean elkarturik bertan bizi diren guztiena dela.

 

 

We, the people of South Africa, Recognize the injustices of our past; Honor those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land; Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity.